Stable Isotopes in Zooarchaeology Zotero Bibliography

The working group has compiled a list of useful references for anyone working with stable isotopes in zooarchaeology. It includes sections on isotope ecology and essential background reading; bone collagen and apatite; tooth enamel carbonate and phosphate; and shell. The list is not complete; suggestions are welcomed!

Isotope Ecology and Background Reading

Broadmeadow, M.S.J. & H. Griffiths. 1993. Carbon isotope discrimination and the coupling of CO2 fluxes within forest canopies, in J.R. Ehleringer, A.E. Hall & G.D. Farquhar (ed.), Stable isotopes and plant carbon–water relations: 109-129. San Diego: Academic Press, Inc.

Clark, I.D. & P. Fritz. 1997. Environmental isotopes in hydrogeology. Boca Raton: CRC Press.

Collins, R.P. & M.B. Jones. 1986. The influence of climatic factors on the distribution of C4 species in Europe. Vegetation 64:121-129.

Coplen, T.B. 1995. New IUPAC guidelines for the reporting of stable hydrogen, carbon, and oxygen isotope-ratio data. Journal of Research of the National Institute of Standards and Technology 100: 285.

Coplen, T.B., C. Kendall & J. Hopple. 1983. Comparison of stable isotope reference samples. Nature 302: 236-238.

Craig, H. 1961. Standard for reporting concentrations of deuterium and oxygen-18 in natural waters. Science 133: 1833-1834.

Craig, H. & L.I. Gordon. 1965. Deuterium and oxygen-18 variations in the ocean and the marine atmosphere, in E. Tongiori (ed.), Stable isotopes in oceanographic studies and paleotemperatures: 9-130. Pisa: Consiglio Nazionale delle Richerche Laboratorio di Geologia Nucleare.

Dansgaard, W. 1964. Stable isotopes in precipitation. Tellus 16: 436-468.

Farquhar, G.D. 1983. On the nature of carbon isotope discrimination in C4 species. Australian Journal of Plant Physiology 10: 205-226.

Francey, R.J., R.M. Gifford, T.D. Sharkey & B. Weir. 1985. Physiological influences on carbon isotope discrimination in huon pine (Lagarostrobos franklinii). Oecologia 66: 211-218.

Gonfiantini, R. 1978. Standards for stable isotope measurements in natural compounds. Nature 271: 534-536.

Guy, R.D., D.M. Reid & H.R. Krouse. 1986a. Factors affecting 13C/12C ratios of inland halophytes. 1. Controlled studies on growth and isotopic composition of Puccinellia nuttalliana. Canadian Journal of Botany 64: 2693-2699.

Guy, R.D., D.M. Reid & H.R. Krouse. 1986b. Factors affecting 13C/12C ratios of inland halophytes. 2. Ecophysiological interpretations of patterns in the field. Canadian Journal of Botany 64: 2700-2707.

Heaton, T. 1999.  Spatial, species, and temporal variations in the 13C/12C ratios of C3 plants: implications for palaeodiet studies. Journal of Archaeological Science 26: 637-649.

Helliker, B.R. & J.R. Ehleringer. 2000. Establishing a grassland signature in veins: 18O in the leaf water of C3 and C4 grasses. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 97: 7894-7898.

Hoefs, J. 1997. Stable isotope geochemistry. Berlin: Springer.

Koch, P.L. 1998. Isotopic reconstruction of past continental environments. Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Science 26: 573-613.

Koch, P.L. 2007. Isotopic study of the biology of modern and fossil vertebrates, in R. Michener & K. Lajtha (ed.): 99-154.

Körner, C., G.D. Farquhar & Z. Roksandic. 1988. A global survey of carbon isotope discrimination plants from high altitude. Oecologia 74: 623-632.

Körner, C., G.D. Farquhar & S.C. Wong. 1991. Carbon isotope discrimination by plants follows latitudinal and altitudinal trends. Oecologia 88: 30-40.

Majoube, M. 1971. Fractionnement en oxygène-18 et en deutérium entre l’eau et sa vapeur. Journal of Chemical Physics 197: 1423-1436.

Marshall, J.D. & J. Zhang. 1994. Carbon isotope discrimination and water-use efficiency in native plants of the north-central Rockies. Ecology 75: 1887-1895.

Marshall, J.D., J.R. Brooks & K. Lajtha. 2007. Sources of variation in the stable isotopic composition of plants, in R. Michener & K. Lajtha (ed.): 22-60.

McGuire, K. & J. McDonnell. 2007. Stable isotope tracers in watershed hydrology, in R. Michener & K. Lajtha (ed.): 334-374.

Medina, E., G. Montes, E. Cuevas & Z. Roksandic. 1986. Profiles of CO2 concentration and δ13C values in tropical rain forests of the Upper Rio Negro Basin, Venezuela. Journal of Tropical Ecology 2: 207-217.

Medina, E., L. Sternberg & E. Cuevas. 1991. Vertical stratification of δ13C values in closed natural and plantation forests in the Luquillo mountains, Puerto Rico. Oecologia 87: 369-372.

Michener, R. & K. Lajtha (ed.). 2007. Stable isotopes in ecology and environmental science. Second edition. Oxford: Blackwell.

O’Leary, M.H. 1981. Carbon isotope fractionation by plants. Phytochemistry 20: 553-567.

O’Leary, M.H. 1988: Carbon isotopes in photosynthesis. Bioscience 38: 328-336.

O’Leary, M.H. 1995. Environmental effects on carbon isotope fractionation in terrestrial plants, in E. Wada, T. Yoneyama, M. Minagawa, T. Ando & B. Fry (ed.), Stable isotopes in the biosphere: 78-91. Kyoto: Kyoto University Press.

Pilaar Birch, S.E. 2013. Stable isotopes in zooarchaeology: an introduction Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences 5: 81-83.

Roeske, C.A. & M.H. O’Leary. 1984. Carbon isotope effect on carboxylation of ribulose bisphosphate catalyzed by ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase from Rhodospirillum rubrum. Biochemistry 24: 1603-1607.

Rozanski, K., L. Araguâs-Araguâs & R. Gonfiantini. 1993. Isotopic patterns in modern global precipitation, in P. K. Swart, K. C. Lohmann, J. McKenzie & S. Savin (ed.), Climate change in continental isotopic records (Geophysical Monograph 78: 1-36). Washington, D.C.: American Geophysical Union.

Rozanski, K., S.J. Johnsen, U. Schotterer & L.G. Thompson. 1997. Reconstruction of past climates from stable isotope records of palaeo-precipitation preserved in continental archives. Hydrological Sciences-Journal des Sciences Hyrologiques 42: 725-745.

Sharp, Z.D. 2007. Principles of stable isotope geochemistry. Upper Saddle River: Pearson Education.

Smith, B.N., H.M.W. Herath & J.B. Chase. 1973. Effect of growth temperature on carbon isotopic ratios in barley, pea, and rape. Plant and Cell Physiology 14: 177-182.

Sternberg, L., S.S. Mulkey & S.J. Wright. 1989. Ecological interpretation of leaf carbon isotope ratios: influence of respired carbon dioxide. Ecology 70: 1317-1324.

Sulzman, E.W. 2007. Stable isotope chemistry and measurement: a primer, in R. Michener & K. Lajtha (ed.):1-21.

Tcherkez, G., S. Nogus, J. Bleton, G. Cornic, F.-W. Badeck & J. Gahshghaie. 2002. Metabolic origin of carbon isotope composition of leaf dark-respired CO2 in Phaseolus vulgaris L. Plant Physiology 131: 237-244.

van Groenigen, J.W. & C. van Kessel. 2002. Salinity-induced patterns of natural abundance carbon-13 and nitrogen-15 in plant and soil. Soil Science Society of America Journal 66: 489-498.

Bone Collagen

Bonsall, C., G. Cook, R. Lennon, D. Harkness, M. Scott, L. Bartosiewicz & K. McSweeney. 2000. Stable isotopes, radiocarbon and the Mesolithic-Neolithic transition in the Iron Gates. Documenta Praehistorica 27: 119-132.

Drucker, D.G., A. Bridault, K.A. Hobson, E. Szuma & H. Bocherens. 2008. Can carbon-13 in large herbivores reflect the canopy effect in temperate and boreal ecosystems? Evidence from modern and ancient ungulates. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 266: 69-82.

Fisher, J. & B. Valentine. 2013. Resource depression, climate change, and mountain sheep in the eastern Great Basin of western North America Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences 5: 145-157.

Hammond, C. & T. O’Connor. 2013. Pig diet in medieval York: carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes by Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences 5: 123-127.

Krueger, H.W. & C.H. Sullivan. 1984. Models for carbon isotope fractionation between diet and bone, in J. Turnlund & P.E. Johnson (ed.), Stable isotopes in nutrition (American Chemical Society Symposium Series 258: 205-222). Washington, D.C.: American Chemical Society.

Land, L.S., E.L. Lundelius & S. Valastro. 1980. Isotope ecology of deer bones. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 32: 143-151.

Lightfoot, E., B. Boneva, P.T. Miracle, M. Šlaus & T.C. O’Connell. 2011. Exploring the Mesolithic and Neolithic transition in Croatia through isotopic investigations. Antiquity 85: 73-86.

Madgwick, R., Sykes, N., Miller, H., Symmons, R., Morris, J. & A. Lamb 2013. Fallow deer (Dama dama dama) management in Roman South-East Britain Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences 5: 111-122.

Milner, N., O.E. Craig, G.N. Bailey, K. Pedersen & S.H. Andersen. 2004. Something fishy in the Neolithic? A re-evaluation of stable isotope analysis of Mesolithic and Neolithic coastal populations. Antiquity 78: 9-22.

Noe-Nyegaard, N., T.D. Price & S.U. Hede. 2005. Diet of aurochs and early cattle in southern Scandinavia: evidence from 15N and 13C stable isotopes. Journal of Archaeological Science 32: 855-871.

Paine, C., T. O’Connell & P.T. Miracle. 2009. Stable isotopic reconstruction of diet at Pupićina Cave, in S. McCartan, R. Schulting, G. Warren & P. Woodman (ed.): 210-216.

Stevens, R.E., Lister, A.M. & R.E.M. Hedges. 2006. Predicting diet, trophic level and palaeoecology from bone stable isotope analysis: a comparative study of five red deer populations. Oecologia 149: 12-21.

Stevens, R.E., Lightfoot, E., Hamilton, J., Cunliffe, B.W. & R.E.M. Hedges. 2013. One for the master and one for the dame: stable isotope investigations of Iron Age animal husbandry in the Danebury Environs Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences 5: 95-109.

Szpak, P., Orchard, T.J., Salomon, A.K. & D.R. Gröcke. 2013. Regional ecological variability and impact of the maritime fur trade on nearshore ecosystems in southern Haida Gwaii (British Columbia, Canada): evidence from stable isotope analysis of rockfish (Sebastes spp.) bone collagen Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences 5: 159-182.

van Klinken, G.J., J. van der Plicht & R.E.M. Hedges. 1994. Bone 13C/12C ratios reflect (palaeo-) climatic variations. Geophysical Research Letters 21: 445-448.

Vogel, J.C. 1978. Isotopic assessment of the dietary habits of ungulates. South African Journal of Science 74: 298-301.

Tooth Enamel Carbonate/Phosphate and Bone Bioapatite

Arnold, E.R., Greenfield, H.J. & R.A. Creaser. 2013. Domestic cattle mobility in early farming villages in southern Africa: harvest profiles and strontium (87Sr/86Sr) isotope analyses from Early Iron Age sites in the lower Thukela River Valley of South Africa Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences 5: 129-144.

Bailey, G.N., M.R. Deith & N.J. Shackleton. 1983b. Oxygen isotope analysis and seasonality determinations: limits and potential of a new technique. American Antiquity 48: 390-398.

Balasse, M., S.H. Ambrose, A.B. Smith & T.D. Price. 2002. The seasonal mobility model for prehistoric herders in the south-western Cape of South Africa assessed by isotopic analysis of sheep tooth enamel. Journal of Archaeological Science 29: 917-932.

Balasse, M. 2002. Reconstructing dietary and environmental history from enamel isotopic analysis: time resolution of intra-tooth sequential sampling. International Journal of Osteoarchaeology 12: 155-165.

Balasse, M., A.B. Smith, S.H. Ambrose & S.R. Leigh. 2003. Determining sheep birth seasonality by analysis of tooth enamel oxygen isotope ratios: the Late Stone Age site of Kasteelberg (South Africa). Journal of Archaeological Science 30: 205-215.

Balasse, M., G. Obein, J. Ughetto-Monfrin & I. Mainland. 2012. Investigating seasonality and season of birth in past herds: a reference set of sheep enamel stable oxygen isotope ratios. Archaeometry 54: 349-368.

Britton, K., V. Grimes, J. Dau & M.P. Richards. 2009. Reconstructing faunal migrations using intra-tooth sampling and strontium and oxygen isotope analyses: a case study of modern caribou (Rangifer tarandus granti). Journal of Archaeological Science 36: 1163-1172.

Britton, K., V. Grimes, L. Niven, T.E. Steele, S. McPherron, M. Soressi, T.E. Kelly, J. Jaubert, J.-J. Hublin & M.P. Richards. 2011. Strontium isotope evidence for migration in late Pleistocene Rangifer: implications for Neanderthal hunting strategies at the Middle Palaeolithic site of Jonzac, France. Journal of Human Evolution 61: 176-185.

Bryant, J.D., B. Luz & P.N. Froelich. 1994. Oxygen isotope composition of fossil horse tooth phosphate as a record of continental palaeoclimate. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 107: 303-316.

Delgado Huertas, A., P. Iacumin, B. Stenni, B. Sanchez Chillon & A. Longinelli. 1995. Oxygen isotope variations of phosphate in mammalian bone and tooth enamel.  Geochimica Cosmochimica Acta 59: 4299-4305.

Delgado Huertas, A., P. Iacumin & A. Longinelli. 1997. A stable isotope study of fossil mammal remains from the Paglicci cave, southern Italy, 13 to 33 ka BP: palaeoclimatological considerations. Chemical Geology 141: 211-223.

Fricke, H.C. & J.R. O’Neil. 1996. Inter- and intra-tooth variation in the oxygen isotope composition of mammalian tooth enamel phosphate: implications for palaeoclimatological and palaeobiological research. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 126: 91-99.

Hoppe, K.A., S.M. Stover, J.R. Pascoe & R. Amundson. 2004. Tooth enamel biomineralization in extant horses: implications for isotopic microsampling. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 206: 355-365.

Iacumin, P., H. Bocherens, A. Mariotti & A. Longinelli. 1996. Oxygen isotope analyses of coexisting carbonate and phosphate in biogenic apatite:  a way to monitor diagenetic alteration of bone phosphate? Earth and Planetary Science Letters 142: 1-6.

Julien, M.-A., H. Bocherens, A. Burke, D.G. Drucker, M. Patou-Mathis, O. Krotova & S. Péan. 2012. Were European steppe bison migratory? 18O, 13C and Sr intra-tooth isotopic variations applied to a palaeoethological reconstruction. Quaternary International 271: 106-119.

Kohn, M.J., M.J. Schoeninger & J.W. Valley. 1996. Herbivore tooth oxygen isotope compositions: effects of diet and physiology. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 60: 3889-3896.

Kohn, M.J., M.J. Schoeninger & J.W. Valley. 1998. Variability in oxygen isotope compositions of herbivore teeth: reflections of seasonality or developmental physiology? Chemical Geology 152: 97-112.

Longinelli, A. 1984. Oxygen isotopes in mammal bone phosphate-a new tool for palaeo-hydrological and palaeoclimatological research. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 48: 385-390.

Luz, B., Y. Kolodny & M. Horowitz. 1984. Fractionation of oxygen isotopes between mammalian bone phosphate and environmental drinking water. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 48: 1689-1693.

Mashkour, M., H. Bocherens & I. Moussa. 2005. Long distance movement of sheep and goats of Bakhtiari nomads tracked with intra-tooth variations of stable isotopes (13C and 18O), in J. Davies, I. Mainland & M. Richards (ed.), Diet and health in past animal populations: current research and future directions. Proceedings of the 9th Conference of the International Council of Archaeozoology, Durham, August 2002: 113-124. Oxford: Oxbow.

Passey, B.H. & T.E. Cerling. 2002. Tooth enamel mineralization in ungulates: implications for recovering a primary isotopic time-series. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 66: 3225-3234.

Passey, B.H., T.F. Robinson, L.K. Ayliffe, T.E. Cerling, M. Sponheimer, M.D. Dearing, B.L. Roeder & J.R. Ehleringer. 2005. Carbon isotopic fractionation between diet, breath, and bioapatite in different mammals. Journal of Archaeological Science 32: 1459-1470.

Sponheimer, M. & J.A. Lee-Thorp. 1999. Oxygen isotopes in enamel carbonate and their ecological significance. Journal of Archaeological Science 26: 723-728.

Stevens, R.E., M. Balasse & T.C. O’Connell. 2011. Intra-tooth oxygen isotope variation in a known population of red deer: implications for past climate and seasonality reconstructions. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 301: 64-74.

van Dam, J.A. & G.J. Reichart. 2009. Oxygen and carbon isotope signatures in late Neogene horse teeth from Spain: an application as temperature and seasonality proxies. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 274: 64-81.

Viner S., Evans J., Albarella U. & Parker Pearson M. 2010. Cattle mobility in prehistoric Britain: strontium isotope analysis of cattle teeth from Durrington Walls (Wiltshire, Britain). Journal of Archaeological Science 37: 2812-20.

Zazzo, A., M. Balasse & W.P. Patterson. 2005. High-resolution δ13C intratooth profiles in bovine enamel: implications for mineralization pattern and isotopic attenuation. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 69: 3631-3642.

Zazzo, A., M. Balasse & W.P. Patterson. 2006. The reconstruction of mammal individual history: refining high-resolution isotope record in bovine tooth dentine.  Journal of Archaeological Science 33: 1177-1187.

Bone Collagen and Bioapatite

Harrison, R.G. & M.A. Katzenberg. 2003. Paleodiet studies using carbon isotopes from bone apatite and collagen: examples from southern Ontario and San Nicolas Island, California. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 22: 227-244.

Hedges, R.E.M. 2003. On bone collagen-apatite–carbonate isotopic relationships. International Journal of Osteoarchaeology 13: 66-79.

Lee-Thorp, J.A., J.C. Sealy & N.J. van der Merwe. 1989. Stable carbon isotope ratio differences between bone collagen and bone apatite, and their relationship to diet. Journal of Archaeological Science 16: 585-599.


Barrera, E., M.J.S. Tevesz, J.G. Carter & P.L. McCall. 1994. Oxygen and carbon isotopic composition and shell microstructure of the bivalve Laternula elliptica from Antarctica. Palaios 9: 275-287.

Burchell, M., A. Cannon, N. Hallmann, H.P. Schwarcz & B.R. Schöne. 2012a. Intersite variability in the season of shellfish collection on the central coast of British Columbia. Journal of Archaeological Science (in press). doi: 10.1016/ j.jas.2012.07.002.

Burchell, M., A. Cannon, N. Hallmann, H.P. Schwarcz & B.R. Schöne. 2012b. Refining estimates for the season of shellfish collection on the Pacific Northwest Coast: applying high-resolution oxygen isotope analysis and sclerochronology. Archaeometry (in press). doi: 10.1111/j.1475-4754.2012.00684.

Çakirlar, C. & R. Şeşen. 2013. Reading between the lines: δ18O and δ13C isotopes of Unio elongatulus shell increments as proxies for local palaeoenvironments in mid-Holocene northern Syria Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences 5: 85-94.

Colonese, A.C., S. Troelstra, P. Ziveri, F. Martini, D. LoVetro & S. Tommasini. 2009. Mesolithic shellfish exploitation in SW Italy: seasonal evidence from the oxygen isotopic composition of Osilinus turbinatus shells. Journal of Archaeological Science 36: 1935-1944.

Deith, M.R. 1986. Subsistence strategies at a Mesolithic camp site: evidence from stable isotope analyses of shells. Journal of Archaeological Science 13: 61-78.

Deith, M.R. 1989. Clams and salmonberries: interpreting seasonality data from shells, in C. Bonsall (ed.): 73-79.

Deith, M. & N. Shackleton. 1986. Seasonal exploitation of marine molluscs: oxygen isotope analysis of shell from La Riera cave, in L.G. Straus & G.A. Clark (ed.): 301-306.

Deith, M.R. & N.J. Shackleton. 1988. Oxygen isotope analyses of marine molluscs from Franchthi Cave, in J.C. Shackleton, Marine molluscan remains from Franchthi Cave. Excavations at Franchthi Cave, Greece, fascicle 4: 133-188. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.

Goodwin, D.H., B.R. Schöne & D.L. Dettman. 2003. Resolution and fidelity of oxygen isotopes as paleotemperature proxies in bivalve mollusk shells: models and observations. Palaios 18: 110-125.

Kennett, D. & B. Voorhies. 1996. Oxygen isotopic analysis of archaeological shells to detect seasonal use of wetlands on the southern Pacific coast of Mexico. Journal of Archaeological Science 23: 689-704.

Killingley, J. 1981. Seasonality of mollusk collecting determined from O-18 profiles of midden shells. American Antiquity 46: 152-158.

Mannino, M.A., B.F. Spirob & K.D. Thomas. 2003. Sampling shells for seasonality: oxygen isotope analysis on shell carbonates of the inter-tidal gastropod Monodonta lineata (da Costa) from populations across its modern range and from a Mesolithic site in southern Britain. Journal of Archaeological Science 30: 667-679.

Mannino, M., K.D. Thomas, M.J. Leng, M. Piperno, S. Tusa & A. Tagliacozzo. 2007. Marine resources in the Mesolithic and Neolithic at the Grotta dell’Uzzo (Sicily): evidence from isotope analyses of marine shells. Archaeometry 49: 117-133.

Mannino, M.A., K.D. Thomas, M.J. Leng & H.J. Sloane. 2008. Shell growth and oxygen isotopes in the topshell Osilinus turbinatus: resolving past inshore sea surface temperatures. Geo-Marine Letters 28: 309-325.

Rick, T.C., J.A. Robbins & K.M. Ferguson. 2006. Stable isotopes from marine shells, ancient environments, and human subsistence on middle Holocene Santa Rosa Island, California, USA. Journal of Island and Coastal Archaeology 1: 233-254.

Schifano, G. & P. Censi. 1983. Oxygen isotope composition and rate of growth of Patella coerulea, Monodonta turbinata and M. articulata shells from the western coast of Sicily. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 42: 305-311.

Schifano, G. & P. Censi. 1986. Oxygen and carbon isotope composition, magnesium and strontium contents of calcite from a subtidal Patella coerulea shell. Chemical Geology 58: 325-331.

Schöne, B.R., K. Tanabe, D.L. Dettman & S. Sato. 2003b. Environmental controls on shell growth rates and δ18O of the shallow-marine bivalve mollusk Phacosoma japonicum in Japan. Marine Biology 142: 473-485.

Shackleton, N.J. 1973. Oxygen isotope analysis as a means of determining season of occupation of prehistoric midden sites. Archaeometry 15: 133-141.

Stephens, M., D. Mattey, D.D. Gilbertson & C.V. Murray-Wallace. 2008. Shell-gathering from mangroves and the seasonality of the southeast Asian monsoon using high-resolution stable isotopic analysis of the tropical estuarine bivalve (Geloinaerosa) from the Great Cave of Niah, Sarawak: methods and reconnaissance of molluscs of early Holocene and modern times. Journal of Archaeological Science 25: 2686-2697.

Wanamaker Jr., A.D., K.J. Kreutz, H.W. Borns Jr., D.S. Introne, S. Feindel, S. Funder, P.D. Rawson & B.J. Barber. 2007. Experimental determination of salinity, temperature, growth, and metabolic effects on shell isotope chemistry of Mytilus edulis collected from Maine and Greenland. Paleoceanography 22: PA2217. doi:10.1029/ 2006PA001352.

Wefer, G. & W.H. Berger. 1991. Isotope paleontology: growth and composition of extant calcareous species. Marine Geology 100: 207-248.

One thought on “Bibliography

  1. Pingback: Dr. Brooke Crowley – Secrets Revealed from Mammoths & Mastodons in the Ohio Region | Mostly Mammoths, Mummies and Museums

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: Logo

You are commenting using your account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s